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Coal mine technical terms explanation and basic knowledge collection

May. 12, 2020

1. Major in coal mining

[coal seam regulations]

1) thin coal seam: coal seam with a thickness of less than 1.3m in underground mining; coal seam with a thickness of less than 3.5m in open-pit mining.

2) medium-thick coal layer: coal seam with a thickness of 1.3m to 1.5m during underground mining; coal seam with a thickness of 3.5m to 10m above during open-pit mining.

3) thick coal seam: coal seam with a thickness of more than 3.5m in underground mining; coal seam with a thickness of more than 10m in open-pit mining.

4) near-horizontal coal seam: coal seam whose inclination Angle is below 8 degrees in underground mining; coal seam whose inclination Angle is below 5 degrees in open-pit mining.

5) gently inclined coal seam: coal seam with an inclination Angle of 8-25 degrees when underground mining; coal seam with an inclination Angle of 5-10 degrees when open-pit mining.

6) inclined coal seam: the coal seam with a dip Angle of 25-45 degrees when underground mining, and the coal seam with a dip Angle of 10-45 degrees when open-pit mining.

7) steeply inclined coal seam: when underground mining, the dip Angle of the coal seam is above 45 degrees.

8) close coal seam: the distance between coal seam groups is small, and there is a great influence on each other when mining

Coal seam

9) protective layer: the coal seam or seam that is opened first to eliminate or weaken the outburst impact or ground pressure danger of the adjacent coal seam.

10) shimen uncovered coal: the whole operation process of shimen from the bottom (top) of the plate rock column through the coal seam into the top (bottom) of the plate.

11) safe head value: the maximum head pressure value of the water-proof layer can bear the aquifer


Coal mine technical terms explanation and basic knowledge collection


[well roadway and support]

1) well and lane: all holes dug in coal or rock layers for the purpose of digging.

2) level: the level of transportation roadway or general return air roadway arranged at a certain elevation along the coal seam strike.

3) stage: part of the well field divided along a certain elevation.

4) section :(divided into stages and small stages) the mining block segment divided along the inclined direction within the stage.

5) main haulage lane: the general name of the haulage lane, the haulage stone gate and the main winch road.

6) transportation roadway :(stage roadway, horizontal roadway or main roadway) is a horizontal roadway serving the whole mining level or stage transportation.Digging in the rock layer is called shimen transportation roadway: for several coal seam service is called centralized transportation roadway.

7) shimen: rock horizontal roadway with orthogonal or oblique intersection with coal seam strike.

8) main winch way :(up and down the hill in the center or concentrated up and down the hill) not directly to the ground, for a horizontal or several mining services and equipped with a winch inclined roadway.

9) uphill: an inclined roadway that is dug along the coal stratum to serve a mining area upward from the transportation roadway.According to the use and equipment: conveyor up the hill, track up the hill, ventilation up the hill and pedestrian up the hill.

10) downhill: a sloping roadway that is dug down the transport roadway along the coal stratum to serve a mining area.According to the use and equipment: conveyor down the mountain, track down the mountain, ventilation down the mountain and pedestrian down the mountain.

11) eaves: the wrong distance between the steps in the step face

12) goaf: general name of goaf, old kiln and abandoned well lane.

13) goaf: a space that is no longer maintained after stoping

14) shotcrete and bolt support: combined use of bolt and shotcrete or shotcrete support

15) bolt (cable) anchorage strength :(10KN, about 1 ton)

(1) the proportion of no less than 10% and no more than 3 days time interval on the permanent support roof anchor

Anchorage force shall not be less than 150KN (20MPa), and anchor force of roadway bolt shall not be less than 120KN. Rebar steel bolt whose anchorage force is up to 100KN(15MP) is excellent, and which is up to 90KN(10MPa) is qualified. It is found that unqualified and invalid bolts shall be replaced with bolts within the range of 20cm.The maximum subsidence of roof is 19.12mm, and the minimum subsidence is 4.36mm.

(2) the design of cable pre-tightening anchorage force is excellent if it reaches 150KN (20MPa), and the maximum anchorage force is 260KN(36MPa), and the leakage length is guaranteed to be 15-20cm.The inner end of 20cm-30cm shall be broken when the anchor cable is installed.

16) shotcrete support: shotcrete cement mortar and shotcrete as the general term of shaft support

17) freezing wall intersection circle: the freezing cylinder of each adjacent freezing hole gradually expands, connects with each other, and begins to form the phenomenon of closed freezing wall

18) stop grouting rock cap: when the well roadway working face pre-grouting.A rock column left temporarily above or in front of an aquifer to withstand maximum grouting pressure (pressure) and to prevent leakage into the heading face.

19) concrete grouting pad: during the pre-grouting of the wellbore working face, the concrete structure built above the aquifer in advance can withstand the maximum grouting pressure (pressure) and prevent the leakage and running of slurry on the roadway driving working face.

20) rock burst (rock burst) : the rock mass around the shaft or working face, due to the instantaneous release of elastic deformation energy, produces the dynamic phenomenon of sudden and severe destruction.Often accompanied by coal and rock mass ejection, loud noise and air waves and other phenomena.

Ii. One pass three prevention related majors (mine effective air volume is not less than 85%)

 

1) main air lane: general name of the main inlet air lane, the main return air lane, the main inlet air lane and the main return air lane.

2) subarea ventilation (parallel ventilation and independent ventilation) : the ventilation method in which the return air from the underground wind locations directly enters the back air lane or the main back air lane of the mining area.

3) series ventilation: the ventilation mode in which the return air from the underground wind locations enters other wind locations again.

4) diffusion ventilation: a way to ventilate local places by using the natural diffusion movement of molecules in the air.

5) independent ventilation: air flow diverts from the main air inlet lane and enters the main air return lane after blasting material storage or charging chamber.

6) total air pressure: the total pressure difference between the outlet side and the inlet side of the main ventilator in the ventilation system.

7) fire and wind pressure: when a fire occurs in the underground, the additional wind pressure generated by the high-temperature smoke flow through the shaft with a height difference.

8) local ventilation: use the local ventilator or the main ventilator to produce wind pressure on the local

Point method of ventilation.

9) circulation wind: the return wind of the partial ventilator, part or all of it enters into the air inlet of the same ventilator again.

10) upward ventilation: a ventilation system in which the airflow flows upward along the coal face from below.

11) downwind ventilation: a ventilation system in which the airflow flows down a coal face from top to bottom.

12) gas: the mine is mainly composed of coal bed methane mainly methane harmful gas known as methane.(evacuate when gas concentration reaches 1.5% within 20 meters)

13) gas mine: general name of low-gas mine and high-gas mine.

14) gas gushing: the phenomenon that coal seams and rock formations affected by mining, as well as coal and gangue falling from mining, give off gas evenly to the underground air.

Specific regulations on downhole gas co2 concentration:

(1) the concentration of gas and carbon dioxide shall not exceed 0.5% in the air flow in the connected working face.

(2) when the gas concentration in the return air lane of the mining area and in the return air lane of the mining face exceeds 1.0% and the co2 concentration exceeds 1.5%, the personnel must be evacuated immediately, the operation must be stopped, and measures must be taken to deal with it in a timely manner.

(3) when the gas concentration and carbon dioxide concentration in the air flow of the mining face reach 1.5%, personnel must be evacuated immediately, operations must be stopped, and measures must be taken to deal with them in a timely manner.

16) gas (carbon dioxide) ejection: the abnormal discharge of a large amount of gas (carbon dioxide) from a fissure, hole or hole in a coal or rock mass.When the gush of gas is greater than or equal to 1.0 cubic meters per minute within a range of 20 meters and the duration is more than 8 hours, the excavation area is designated as a hazardous area for gas (carbon dioxide) ejections

17) rock powder: specially produced, used to prevent the explosion and the spread of inert powder.

18) coal (rock) and gas outburst: under the combined action of ground stress and gas, the broken coal, rock and gas are suddenly thrown into the mining space from the coal body or rock mass.The outburst referred to in the fourth chapter of the second part of this regulation is the general term of coal and gas outburst, sudden discharge of coal, rock and gas outburst.

19) grade hole: abstract concept, imagine in a certain space or infinite space as a panel, and the panel has nodry hole, air flow through the hole or wind speed, specific formula calculation

20) gas accumulation: volume in 0.5 cubic meters of gas concentration reached more than 2% is called gas accumulation.

12) gas control policy: pumping first and then mining, wind fixed production, monitoring and monitoring

22) mine anti - wind points: the whole mine anti - wind and local anti - wind

23) mining face gas, carbon dioxide requirements: mining face into the air flow oxygen concentration is not less than 20%, carbon dioxide concentration is not more than 0.5%.When the gas concentration exceeds 1.0% or carbon dioxide exceeds 1.5% in the air flow in the return air lane or the mining face in the mining area, the work must be stopped and the measures for evacuation of personnel from the mining area must be taken.

24) dustproof wind speed: considering from the dustproof Angle, the most suitable wind speed is 1.2-1.6m/s

25) water fire precautions: water fire must not exceed 2% gas concentration

26) gas explosion conditions: gas concentration 5-16%, temperature 650-750℃, oxygen concentration more than 12%

27) coal dust explosion conditions: coal dust concentration 45-2000 g /m, temperature 610-1050℃, oxygen concentration more than 18%.

28) high (low) gas mine: mine relative gas emission quantity is greater than (less than or equal to) 10 cubic meters/ton, or absolute emission quantity is greater than (less than or equal to) 40 cubic meters/ton.

29) coal dust accumulation standard: coal dust accumulation with a thickness of more than 2mm and a length of more than 5m.

30) water standard: the depth of more than 10 cm, the length of more than 5m sewage.

31) installation standard of fire pipeline: the ground fire pool always maintains a water quantity of no less than 200m3 and the underground fire pipeline system should be equipped with branch pipes and valves every 100m, the roadway of belt conveyor should be equipped with branch pipes and valves every 50m, and other pipelines should be equipped with a three-way valve every 100m.The design conforms to article 218 of coal mine safety regulations.

32) installation standard of explosion-proof water bag: explosion-proof implementation refers to (explosion-proof water curtain, explosion-proof water shed, rock powder shed and automatic explosion-proof shed).

1. The vertical distance between the edge of the water bag and the lane wall, pillar and roof (beam) shall be no less than 100mm, and the distance between the water bag and roof (beam) shall be no more than 1.0m.The spacing between the water tank and the roof shall be 1.2-3.0m, and the vertical distance between the bottom of the water bag and the roof shall not be more than 1m.

(1) the water quantity in the main water shed should be guaranteed to be 60L, and the total number of water bags should not be less than 104 (considering water shortage). 4 water bags should be hung on each row, and the total water consumption should not be less than 400L/m. The length of the shed area should be 41.6-50 meters..

(2) the water bag of the auxiliary water shed shall ensure that 60L and the total water consumption of the water shed shall not be less than 200 L/m.The length of the shed area shall not be less than 20 meters.

Local ventilator installation standard:

1. The distance between the fresh air flow and the air return port shall be no less than 10 meters, and the height above ground shall be greater than 0.3m.

34) face dust removal: underground all coal transfer points must have a perfect spray dust removal device, coal mining face into the air lane, the main air into the main roadway into the air slope and tunneling face must be installed clean water curtain, coal mining face upper and lower exports do not exceed 30m.The heading face is not more than 50m from the head.

There are more information about the coal mining , welcome contact us for further professional knowledge .

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